A martyr in Islam sacrifices his life for the sake of Allah for a good cause in a battle or operation.
Allah Almighty said in Quran:
وَلَا تَحْسَبَنَّ ٱلَّذِينَ قُتِلُوا۟ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمْوَٰتًۢا ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَآءٌ عِندَ رَبِّهِمْ يُرْزَقُونَ
And never think of those who have been killed in the cause of Allah as dead. Instead, they are alive with their Lord, receiving provision.
فَرِحِينَ بِمَآ ءَاتَىٰهُمُ ٱللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِۦ وَيَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِٱلَّذِينَ لَمْ يَلْحَقُوا۟ بِهِم مِّنْ خَلْفِهِمْ أَلَّا خَوْفٌ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحْزَنُونَ
Rejoicing in what Allāh has bestowed upon them of His bounty, they receive good tidings about those [to be martyred] after them who have not yet joined them – that there will be no fear concerning them, nor will they grieve.
يَسْتَبْشِرُونَ بِنِعْمَةٍ مِّنَ ٱللَّهِ وَفَضْلٍ وَأَنَّ ٱللَّهَ لَا يُضِيعُ أَجْرَ ٱلْمُؤْمِنِينَ
They receive good tidings of favor from Allāh and bounty and [of the fact] that Allāh does not allow the reward of Believers to be lost –
Another verse of the Quran
وَلَا تَقُولُوا۟ لِمَن يُقْتَلُ فِى سَبِيلِ ٱللَّهِ أَمْوَٰتٌۢ ۚ بَلْ أَحْيَآءٌ وَلَٰكِن لَّا تَشْعُرُونَ
And do not say about those who are killed in the way of Allāh, “They are dead.” Rather, they are alive, but you perceive [it] not.
(The Noble Quran, 2:154).”
Types of Martyr in Islam:
In the Saheeh Sunnah, there are different kinds of martyrs in Islam. First, those who will achieve the status of martyr in the Hereafter; this is by the effortlessness and kindness of Allah. So, Abu Hurayrah (may Allah be pleased with him) narrated that the Messenger of Allah (PBUH) said:
“The martyrs are five:
- The one who dies of the plague,
- The one who dies of a stomach disease,
- The one who drowns,
- The one who is crushed beneath a falling wall,
- The martyr who is killed for the sake of Allah.”
Jabir ibn `Utayk reported that Prophet Muhammad (PBUH) said:
“There are seven kinds of martyrs besides those
- A person killed in wars, defending the cause of Allah
- A person who is killed in an epidemic,
- A person who has drowned,
- A woman who dies during childbirth
- A person who dies in a fire
- A person who dies under falling debris [in a disaster]
- A person with bedsores, causing fever and cough, resulting in his death.”
Degree of Martyr in Islam:
The status of the martyr in Islam is undoubtedly high, coming after the Prophets and Siddeeqs in status.
Allah Almighty said in Quran:
وَمَن يُطِعِ ٱللَّهَ وَٱلرَّسُولَ فَأُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ مَعَ ٱلَّذِينَ أَنْعَمَ ٱللَّهُ عَلَيْهِم مِّنَ ٱلنَّبِيِّۦنَ وَٱلصِّدِّيقِينَ وَٱلشُّهَدَآءِ وَٱلصَّٰلِحِينَ ۚ وَحَسُنَ أُو۟لَٰٓئِكَ رَفِيقًا
And whoever obeys Allāh and the Messenger – those will be with the ones upon whom Allāh has bestowed favor of the prophets, the steadfast affirmers of truth, the martyrs and the righteous. And excellent are those as companions.
It was reported in the hadeeth of al-Miqdaam ibn Maadi Karb that the Prophet (PBUH) said:
“The martyr (shaheed) has seven blessings from Allaah:
- He is forgiven from the moment his blood is first shed
- He will be shown his place in Paradise
- He will be spared the trial of the grave
- He will be secure on the Day of the Greatest Terror (the Day of Judgement)
- There will be a crown of dignity on his head, one ruby of which is better than this world and all in it
- He will be married to seventy-two of al-hoor al-in
- He will be permitted to intercede for seventy of his relatives.”
So, We can understand why a Muslim is happy to sacrifice their life because He gains excellent reward in Paradise and honor. Therefore, there are many Martyrs in Islam. But only Allah knows their true intentions. Allah willing, they are in Paradise.